Coronavirus

Clinical Description Coronaviruses are common viruses that most people get some time in their life. Human coronaviruses usually cause mild to moderate upper-respiratory tract illnesses. Coronaviruses are named for the crown-like spikes on their surface. There are three main sub-groupings of coronaviruses, known as alpha, beta and gamma, and a fourth provisionally-assigned new group called delta coronaviruses. Human coronaviruses were first identified in the mid 1960s. The five coronaviruses that can infect people are: alpha coronaviruses 229E and NL63 and beta coronaviruses OC43, HKU1, and SARS-CoV, the coronavirus that causes severe acute respiratory syndrome. Coronaviruses may also infect animals. Most of these coronaviruses usually infect only one animal species or, at most, a small number of closely related species. However, SARS-CoV can infect people and animals, including monkeys, Himalayan palm civets, raccoon dogs, cats, dogs, and rodents. Human coronaviruses usually cause mild to moderate upper-respiratory tract illnesses of short duration. Symptoms may include runny nose, cough, sore throat, and fever. These viruses can sometimes cause lower-respiratory tract illnesses, such as pneumonia. This is more common in people with cardiopulmonary disease or compromised immune systems, or the elderly. SARS-CoV can cause severe illness. To learn more, see Symptoms of SARS. Source: http://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/about/index.html Diagnosis Laboratory tests can be done to confirm whether your illness may be caused by human coronaviruses. However, these tests are not used very often because people usually have mild illness. Also, testing may be limited to a few specialized laboratories. Specific laboratory tests may include:
  • virus isolation in cell culture,
  • polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays that are more practical and available commercially, and   
  • serological testing for antibodies to human coronaviruses.
Nose and throat swabs are the best specimens for detecting common human coronaviruses. Serological testing requires collection of blood specimens. Source: http://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/about/index.html Epidemiology The ways that human coronaviruses spread have not been studied very much, except for SARS. However, it is likely that human coronaviruses spread from an infected person to others through
  • the air by coughing and sneezing, and 
  • close personal contact, such as touching or shaking hands.
These viruses may also spread by touching contaminated objects or surfaces then touching your mouth, nose, or eyes. In one case, the SARS virus was though to spread through infected stool that got into the air; people breathed this in and got infected. Source: http://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/about/index.html Prevention There are currently no vaccines available to protect people against human coronavirus infection.  Individuals may be able to reduce their risk of infection by—
  • washing hands often with soap and water,
  • not touching eyes, nose, or mouth, and
  • avoiding close contact with people who are sick.
Source: http://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/about/index.html

Coronavirus du syndrome respiratoire du Moyen-Orient (MERS-CoV) – Arabie saoudite

Du 30 avril au 5 mai 2016, le point focal national RSI pour le Royaume d’Arabie saoudite a notifié à l’OMS quatre cas supplémentaires d’infection par le coronavirus du syndrome respiratoire du Moyen Orient (MERS-CoV), avec un décès.
 
Informations détaillées sur les cas
 
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Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) – Saudi Arabia

Between 30 April and 5 May 2016, the National IHR Focal Point for the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia notified WHO of 4 additional cases of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-CoV), including one fatal case.
 
Details of the cases
 
A 39-year-old, non-national, male living in Riyadh city is a household contact of another MERS-CoV (see case no. 2 below). He is asymptomatic and identified through tracing of contacts. The patient, who has no comorbid conditions, tested positive for MERS-CoV on 5 May. The patient is currently in home isolation.
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Beyond Ebola, keeping patients and health workers safe

Dr Doussou Touré arrives for work at Coléah Medical Centre. She washes her hands from a bucket set up in front of the building, proceeds to a screening area where her temperature is checked and recorded and only then enters the bustling facility that she supervises.
 
“Ebola is under control now, but we try to keep up the infection prevention and control systems that were put in place during the outbreak,” Dr Touré says, pointing to several sturdy, brightly-coloured bins, each one designated for the disposal of varying waste matter.
 
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Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) – Saudi Arabia

Between 15 and 16 March 2016, the National IHR Focal Point for the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia notified WHO of 4 additional cases of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection, including 1 death. One of these reported cases is linked to the MERS-CoV outbreak currently occurring in a hospital in Buraidah city.
 
Details of the cases
 
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Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) – Saudi Arabia

Between 22 and 27 January 2016, the National IHR Focal Point for the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia notified WHO of 5 additional cases of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection.
 
Details of the cases
 
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Africa: FAO Pushes for a Road Map to Control and Contain Zoonotic Diseases

Infectious animal-borne disease threats such as Ebola and the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) are here to stay, and further painful outbreaks are likely to flare up or new disease threats will definitely emerge in the near future, said Juan Lubroth, FAO's chief veterinarian, querying whether the world is prepared to detect them and prevent their spread.
 
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Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) – Saudi Arabia

Between 27 December 2015 and 13 January 2016, the National IHR Focal Point for the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia notified WHO of 4 additional cases of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection.
 
Details of the cases
 
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Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) – Thailand

On 24 January 2016, the National IHR Focal Point of Thailand notified WHO of 1 laboratory-confirmed case of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection. This is the country’s second case of MERS-CoV infection (see DON published on 10 July 2015).
 
Details of the case
 
The case is a 71-year-old Omani national who arrived in Bangkok, Thailand on 22 January. The patient travelled to Thailand to seek medical care. Once in Bangkok, the patient was admitted to hospital. On 23 January, he tested positive for MERS-CoV.
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Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) – Oman

On 3 January 2016, the National IHR Focal Point of Oman notified WHO of 1 additional case of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection.
 
Details of the case
 
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Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) – Saudi Arabia

Between 29 November and 17 December 2015, the National IHR Focal Point for the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia notified WHO of 4 additional cases of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection, including 2 deaths.
 
Details of the cases
 
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