Vigilancia

Study Calls a Malaria Preventive for Pregnant Women Into Question

Pregnant women and their unborn children are particularly vulnerable to malaria: the women because they may develop lethal anemia, and the babies because infected red blood cells tend to clump in the placenta, robbing the fetus of nutrients.
 
In Africa, about 30 million women a year become pregnant in areas where falciparum malaria — the most dangerous kind — is common.
 
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Report: Botswana Leads World in HIV Diagnosis, Treatment

The tiny southern African nation of Botswana is leading the way in treatment and containment of the virus that causes AIDS. It is exceeding goals for addressing the HIV crisis, well ahead of a deadline set by the United Nations. 
 
Botswana, with HIV infection rates of up to 25 percent of the adult population, has moved ahead of other countries — both Western nations and the economically disadvantaged — in tackling the AIDS epidemic.
 
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Malawi: des drones pour faciliter le dépistage du Sida en milieu rural?

Le Malawi a commencé à tester un drone, non pas à des fins militaires, mais médicales. Le ministère de la Santé et le Fonds des Nations unies pour l'enfance (Unicef) espèrent utiliser cet avion sans pilote pour permettre aux enfants potentiellement séropositifs d’accéder plus rapidement aux tests de dépistage contre le VIH.
 
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Sanofi se lance dans la quête d’un vaccin contre le virus Zika

Sanofi compte bien être le premier laboratoire à lancer un vaccin contre le virus Zika. Fort de son expérience dans les maladies tropicales, le groupe tricolore a constitué une véritable « task force » pour développer un cocktail d’antigènes efficace contre cette infection. Une équipe de 80 scientifiques travaille sur son développement. Les essais précliniques sur l’animal pourraient démarrer dès le printemps et les essais cliniques chez l’homme dans un an.
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Zika : le virus est bien en cause dans les microcéphalies

Une équipe animée par des chercheurs de l’Institut Pasteur apporte la preuve que le virus Zika peut entraîner, chez la femme enceinte, une microcéphalie de son fœtus, qui associe un périmètre crânien inférieur aux normes et des anomalies cérébrales. Dans l’étude publiée mercredi 16 mars dans la revue médicale The Lancet, le docteur Simon Cauchemez – de l’unité de modélisation mathématique des maladies infectieuses de l’Institut – et ses collègues quantifient pour la première fois la probabilité de survenue de cette malformation congénitale.
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Over Half Of Measles Cases In U.S. Outbreaks Are Unvaccinated -- Often Intentionally

Even though measles was eliminated from the U.S.—meaning the disease no longer circulated on its own within U.S. borders—16 years ago, outbreaks have continued to result from occasionally imported cases. But the disease can only spread if enough people are not vaccinated against it—and that’s precisely why the U.S. has seen an increase in measles outbreaks. In fact, well over half of people who have caught measles in the past decade and a half were unvaccinated, and most of them had refused the measles vaccine, found a recent study in JAMA.
 
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Fight against polio set to turn a new leaf

Pune: The battle against polio will turn over a new leaf with the health ministry deciding to switch over to bivalent oral polio vaccine (OPV) from the presently administered trivalent OPV from April 25.
The trivalent oral polio vaccine has been in the immunisation schedule since 1978 and was available for use in India from early 60s. With the switch over and simultaneous introduction of single dose of injectable polio, the country aims at complete eradication of poliomyelitis by 2020.
 
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Haiti records nearly 100 cholera deaths in first two months of 2016

Haiti says it has recorded 96 people have died from cholera during the first two months of this year.
 
The Ministry of Public Health and Population (MSPP) said there were also 7, 782 cases of the disease during the period January 1 to February 27.
 
But it said that the trend is towards a decrease in the number of cases following the outbreak US Centres for Disease Control and Prevention described as the worst epidemic of cholera in recent history.
 
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WHO warns of spraying limitations for dengue fever, Zika virus

The World Health Organization (WHO) has said that widespread spraying to eliminate mosquitoes has failed to significantly stop the spread of dengue fever. The agency suggested it may be the same case for the Zika virus, which has been linked to neurological disorders, including microcephaly.

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Nigeria: War Against VPD - After Polio, Measles Should Be Next

When the World Health Organization (WHO) declared Nigeria polio-free, it was celebrated after fighting the battle since 1976. This battle also forced the federal government to set up the National Programme on Immunization (NPI) in the same year. Though the effort failed woefully but in 1979 it was reactivated, leading to the emergence of the Expanded Programme on Immunisation (EPI).The same can be done to other Vaccine Preventable Diseases (VPD), ODIRI UCHENUNU writes.
 
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